1.2 – The Evidence (4.20.10)

TOOLS OF THE TRADE [3g]

The methods used to build huge megalithic structures, such as Puma Punku, and the pyramids of Egypt remain a mystery. But what about the tools used to build them? Where are they? And might they provide a clue as to how these enormous stone structures were created?

“A lot of the real ancient mysterious work was done at a time when there was no steel, and the copper they had was, yeah, they could harden it by cold-hammering it, but still, it wouldn’t make a dent in rocks like basalt and granite. So, they would have had to use, you know, much more laborious techniques or they had some sort of advanced technology which escapes me, and I’ve been in the business 40 years.”

Roger Hopkins (Stone Sculpture)

“The tools and machines must have been equal to the task of actually building the pyramids, crafting those statues to such a high order of precision…crafting those boxes to a modern-day precision that you find in our inspection lab. And the big question: Where are the tools?”

– Christopher Dunn (Engineer),
(Author, Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

In the late 19th-century, British archaeologist Sir Flinders Petrie scoured Egypt, looking not for the biggest items, but the smallest.

“Petrie was absolutely fascinated by the technical achievements of the Egyptians, particularly the early Egyptians. He constantly was looking for how they made things, how they developed things, how they continued to sort of basically perfect their tools.”

Debbie Challis, Ph.D. (Historian, Petrie Museum, London)

“We’re normally taught that the ancient Egyptians had simple tools, and what Petrie brought out is information that seems to actually argue against that notion.”

– Christopher Dunn (Engineer),
(Author, Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

“This is an example of a drill hole. You can see the very fine lines on it. You can see the technology that’s made to use it. You can see how it’s a perfect hole almost all the way through, but it tapers at one end. This is a fragment of a diorite bowl. It’s one of the hardest substances, and you can see on this, on this fragment that there’s a lathe mark, which is really interesting that they managed to make such a mark in such a hard material.”

Debbie Challis, Ph.D. (Historian, Petrie Museum, London)

Among all the tools discovered by Petrie, however, one stood out from all the rest. While working inside the Great Pyramid, Petrie stumbled across a tubular drill made of granite.

“Tubular drills amongst the ancient Egyptians were actually fairly common. I mean, Petrie found quite a few of them. The interesting thing about the one that he found in Giza is that it’s such a hard stone that was so carefully carved, precisely grooved. As you can see, it’s got very, very fine markings on it, basically lines, literally a couple of millimeters apart. You can see it goes all the way around, very, very accurately, hardly any waves at all. He was absolutely amazed by this. He kept returning to it throughout his life. His theory was that the Egyptians must have had access to diamonds or some kind of jewel that would have cut it. The interesting thing about Petrie’s theory about how these drill lines are made was that he never discovered any diamonds in ancient Egypt. So, where were they? Where did they go? We don’t know.”

Debbie Challis, Ph.D. (Historian, Petrie Museum, London)

If the ancient Egyptians didn’t possess diamonds, how were the precision grooves cut onto the granite drill? Did Petrie accidentally discover a tool made by extraterrestrials? Mechanist expert Chris Dunn attempted to answer this question by creating his own granite drill using the known tools and techniques of the ancient Egyptians.

“In order to test the Egyptologist theory about how the ancient Egyptians drilled into granite, I took a tube and I fixed a crank on it, and actually used sand and silicon carbide, and after many hours of turning and drilling into this piece of granite, finally got deep enough that I could actually pop a core out. And the reason for that was to actually look at the surface, not just of the whole, but of the core.”

– Christopher Dunn (Engineer),
(Author, Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

The next step was to use a high-tech industrial microscope to compare his drill core to the latex copy of the one at the Petrie Museum.

“We have under the microscope that we drilled with the copper tube and sand. And as you can see, the surface of the core, the striations are not very clear. There’s nothing really distinctive in terms of the feed of the tool marks using sand and copper. Now bringing the latex that they took of the core in the Petrie Museum, and we see something totally different. The striations are very clear and they’re quite deep. The devil is actually in the details, and the details of this particular artifact are what I consider to be a smoking gun in terms of what level of technology we give the ancient Egyptians credit for.”

– Christopher Dunn (Engineer),
(Author, Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Intrigued by his discovery, Chris Dunn performed other experiments using his precision instruments.

“As you can see, this is an inspection surface plate, probably ground to within 2/10,000 of an inch. That is one-tenth the thickness of a human hair. Now, I was really amazed when I went inside the serapeum and put these gauges up against the surface, and found them to be within what I consider to be the tolerance of these particular gauges. If you would put a piece of paper under one edge of that blade – just a piece of paper – you begin to see that there was…would be light leaking through. And so, the precision on the inside of the granite boxes in the serapeum are, I would say, within 2/10,000 of an inch, which is incredible because those tolerances can’t just appear by accident. It was very shocking. It was astounding to me to go to Egypt, and go into a facility that was supposedly 3,000 years old and find the same kind of precision. I was amazed.”

– Christopher Dunn (Engineer),
(Author, Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

“I’ve seen evidence of the carvings on granite done in Egypt, and they did…they did it with little shards of quartz. I believe they would have just scratched away the stone with that. That’s one possibility, but I mean, that’s a heck of a lot of work to do that. I mean, we’re talking, somebody would devote years to doing something like that.”

Roger Hopkins (Stone Sculptor)

“But here is my point. Here we have a real-life stonecutter – you. You see this, and there’s like, smoke coming out of your head.”

– Giorgio A. Tsoukalos
(Publisher, Legendary Times Magazine)

“Let’s put it this way – I had a client come in and ask me to do that, I wouldn’t do it for any amount of money because I’m not going to waste my life trying to replicate that.”

Roger Hopkins (Stone Sculptor)

But precision-cut stone monuments are not the only enduring Middle Eastern mysteries. Engineering experts have also examined the Bible story of the Israelites’ exodus from Egypt. Just how did they survive for 40 years in the desert? Could they have possessed intricate machines with extraordinary abilities, used not for building, but for man’s own survival?

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References:

[1] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: Season 1. [DVD Back Cover]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[2] History™. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.1 – Chariots, Gods, & Beyond. [Episode Description]. Retrieved: April 20, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/ancient-aliens/season-1.

[3] History™. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [Episode Description]. Retrieved: April 20, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/ancient-aliens/season-1.[3a] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [DVD Footage: Introduction]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[3b] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [DVD Footage: I Want to Fly]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[3c] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [DVD Footage: Vimana]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[3d] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [DVD Footage: Ezekiel’s Chariot]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[3e] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [DVD Footage: Megalithic Construction]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[3f] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [DVD Footage: Precision Work]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[3g] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [DVD Footage: Tools of the Trade]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[3h] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [DVD Footage: The Manna Machine]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[3i] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [DVD Footage: Ancient Power]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[3j] Prometheus Entertainment. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.2 – The Evidence. [DVD Footage: Time Capsules]. Los Angeles, CA: A&E Networks, LLC / History™.

[4] History™. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.3 – The Visitors. [Episode Description]. Retrieved: April 27, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/ancient-aliens/season-1.

[5] History™. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.4 – The Mission. [Episode Description]. Retrieved: May 4, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/ancient-aliens/season-1.

[6] History™. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.5 – Closer Encounters. [Episode Description]. Retrieved: May 18, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/ancient-aliens/season-1.

[7] History™. (2010). Ancient Aliens: 1.6 – The Return. [Episode Description]. Retrieved: May 25, 2010, from http://www.history.com/shows/ancient-aliens/season-1.

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Who were they?… Why did they come?… What did they leave behind?… Where did they go?… Will they return?…

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